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The American M16 rifle and XM177 carbine, which both replaced the M14, was lighter and considered more accurate than the AK-47 but was prone to malfunction. Often the gun suffered from a malfunction known as "failure to extract", which meant that the spent cartridge case remained lodged in the chamber after a round was fired. According to a congressional report, the malfunction was caused by a change of gunpowder in the ammunition, which was done without adequate testing and by a money saving policy, headed by Pat McNamara, to not issue adequate cleaning kits to soldiers. This led to a myth of a self-cleaning gun. These decisions were made without regard to the safety of soldiers and resulted in many deaths.